Parched Earth : Is it a Water Crisis Yet?
Availability and Development of Ground Water
In the year 2000, India's water availability was 2000 cu m per person per year. By 2011, it dropped to 1545 cu m. An availability of 1000 cu m per person per year is considered as a scarcity condition by international agencies.
Rural drinking water supply is met from ground water sources
Groundwater utilized for irrigation (90.75% of 245 BCM available draft) and remaining 9.26% for industrial or domestic use
Total addition to the net irrigated area has come from ground water
Overall stage of groundwater development of the net groundwater availability marked at 58% (2004) and 62% (2011)
% Level of Exploitation of Ground Water Resources across Various Assessment Units in India
|Type of Exploitation||Stage of Ground Water Development|
|Critical Units||>90% and <=100%|
|Semi-Critical Units||>70% and <=100%|
India’s overall ground water development stands at 62% (2011) and is 8% short of being classified as a semi-critical unit from a safe unit.
out of 6607 units observed, were overexploited (2011)
out of 5842 units observed, were overexploited (2009)
out of 5723 units observed, were overexploited (2004)
Degree of ground water exploitation has overall increased, with 14.7% overexploited units in 2004 to 16.2% in 2011
Delhi (137%), Haryana (133%), Punjab (172%) and Rajasthan (137%) quoting overexploited levels of ground water development
% Habitations Affected by Ground Water Contamination
contamination of water due to Iron, followed by 25.7% due to Salinity
habitations in India affected by contamination of water
Critically polluted areas across 12 states have been identiLied
Industrial discharge, landfills and sub-surface injections of chemicals and hazardous waste contributes to contamination.